Chronology


Up ] Time Line ] [ Chronology ] Rulers of Anatolia ] Paleolithic Age ] Mesolithic Age ] Neolithic Age ] Chalcolithic Age ] Bronze Age ] Hittite Period ] Urartian Period ] Phrygian Period ] Lydian Period ] Persian Period ] Alexander the Great ] Hellenistic Period ] Pergamum Kingdom ]


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Time

Events

Before Common Era 

400,000  

Paleolithic Age. Earliest human (Homoerectus) presence in Yarimburgaz (Istanbul), Karain (Antalya), Beldibi (Antalya) Caves, primitive stone tools used. Hunting, fishing, collecting edible plants from the nature.

11,000

Mesolithic Age in Anatolia, a transition from Paleolithic to Neolithic.  

7,250 - 6,500

Neolithic Age. First settlements at Hallan Cemi, Nevali Cori,  Cayonu, Hacilar, Catalhoyuk. Catalhoyuk the largest settlement in the near east. Early agriculture (wheat, barley, lentils). Religious shrines and figurines, pottery, mural paintings. Burials inside homes

6,500 - 5,500

Catalhoyuk becomes first cultural center and introduces religious shrines. The Mother goddess becomes the main deity in Anatolia. First temples and sanctuaries

5,400 - 3,250

Chalcolithic Age. Use of Copper. Dark ages. Burials in cemeteries

5,000

Alacahoyuk, Alisar, Canhasan and Beycesultan rise as main settlements

3,000

Anatolia enters Bronze Age and reaches a high level of civilization. First settlement at Troy. City-States, fortresses and feudal Lords began to appear. Bronze extensively used to make weapons and ornamentation.

2,500 - 2,000

Hatti people, and Assyrian trading colonies and posts (Kanesh) are established in Anatolia. Strong commercial ties between Anatolia and Mesopotamia. Cuneiform tablets are the earliest written records found yet in Anatolia.

1,750

Hittite kingdom founded by Anitta. Hattusas was built.

1650

Hittite Empire founded

1,620  - 1,590

Reign of Mursilis I. Hittite Kingdom becomes the leading power in the Mid-east. 

1520

First law codes made by Telepinus in Hittite State. 

1,450

Tudhaliyas I founds a new dynasty that creates Hittite Empire. 

1,380 - 1345

Reign of Suppiluliumas I, the Hittites' greatest ruler. Suppiluliumas destroys the Kingdom of Mitanni and extends his borders into northern Syria. 

1,275

Reign of Muwattalli. War at Kadesh between Hittites and Egyptians, and earliest known  international treaty signed and  Ramses withdraws from Syria. 

1,200 - 1,100

Anatolian civilizations destroyed by outside invaders called "Sea Peoples". Trojan war, fall and sack of Troy by Achaeans. Hattusas destroyed. Hittite Empire collapses and organized as small city states at Carchemish, Karatepe, Zincirli, Aslantepe. Vacuum of power in Anatolia.

1112

Assyrian king Tiglath Pleser defeats the coalition of 23 local princes in the land of Nairi in Urartu region. 

1,100 - 1,000

Beginning of Greek migration to Aegean coast of Anatolia. Miletus the first Greek colony and city.

900  - 800

Urartu civilization in the eastern Anatolia. Phrygian becomes main power in central Anatolia. Lydian, Lycian and Carian cultures along the Aegean and Mediterranean. Greek culture rises and founds Pan-Ionic league.

860 - 840

Reign of Aramu, first known king of Urartu.

840 - 830

Reign of Sarduri II, who makes Tushpa capital of Urartian Kingdom. First written records by Urartu. 

800

Water channel of Shamram was built by Urartians for irrigation. 

756

Cyzicus founded by Milesian colonists

750

Miletus active in establishing colonies along the Aegean and Black Sea coasts.

735

Siege of Tushpa, capital of Urartu, by Tiglath Pleser III. 

717

Assyria captures Carchemish and other Neo-Hittite states and gains control in Anatolia.
Phrygia takes over in W Anatolia. 

700  - 650

Phrygians and cities of  Western Anatolia destroyed by Cimmerians . Lydia rises main power in Western Anatolia. Homer born at Smyrna. First coin in the World introduced by Lydians at Sardis. Greek colonists from Ionia occupy the Black Sea coast. 

685

Chalcedon, the ancient town across the Bosphorus from Byzantium was founded by Greeks.

680 - 648

Reign of Gyges, first king of Mermnad dynasty of Lydia. Ionian cities under heavy attack by him. Cimmerian invasion of Anatolia.

677

Selymbria on the Propontis coast was captured by Greeks.

660

Byzantium founded by Megarians. Miletus continues to establish more colonies.

652

Gyges dies fighting Cimmerians, his son Ardys becomes king of Lydia. 

604

Peace treaty between Lydians and Mileasians.

600

Ionia  leading area in Greek science and Philosophy. Tyrants rule Anatolia.

590

Urartu conquered by Medes 

585

Solar Eclipse happened during the war between Persians and Lydians. Thales of Miletus had predicted the solar eclipse.

560

Croesus becomes ruler of Lydia. 

560 - 546

Croesus ruler of Lydia. Croesus defeated by Cyrus of Persia. Persian domination established all over Anatolia and Greece. 

512

Byzantium captured by Darius.

499

Ionian cities encouraged by Athens revolt against Persian rule. Sardis burned down. 

498

Sardis captured from Persians and burned by Ionian cities.

494

Persians crush Ionian revolt at Battle of Lade, and burns down Miletus.

479

Persians defeated again at battles of Plataea and Mycale. Ionian cities temporarily regain freedom.

478

Delian League welcomes Ionian cities.

467

Persians defeated once more by Athenians at Eurymedon.

413

Battle between Athenians and Ionian cities.

410

Alcibiades defeats the Peloponnesians at the naval battle of Cyzicus. 

405

Athenians defeated by Peloponnesians at the battle of Aegospotami. 

401

The ten thousand under Xenophon begins expedition through Anatolia into Persia.

395

Sardis besieged by Agesilaus.

394

Battle of Cnidus

386

Anatolia under Persian rule again by King's peace.

363

The Satraps' Revolt.

337  

Kingdom of Pontus founded

334

Alexander crosses Dardanelles   into Asia Minor. Persians defeated at Granicus battle. Ionian cities liberated from Persian yoke.  Miletus and Halicarnassus besieged by Alexander.

334

Alexander conquers Lycia, Pamphylia and Pisidia. Cities of Sillyum and Termessus gives Alexander hard times.

333

Alexander's conquests in Cilicia, decisive defeat of Persians at Issus battle. 

323

Alexander the Great dies at Babylon. Perdiccas becomes regent. 

321

Perdiccas killed in Egypt, Antipater becomes regent.  Antigonus chief commander of the Army. 

319

Antipater dies, Polyperchon replaces him as regent.  

318

Antigonus takes over Asia Minor.

315 -311

First war between Diadochi, Lysimachus, Ptolemy, Cassander, Seleucus vs. Antigonus. 

311

Peace treaty between the Diadochi.
Seleucus was excluded from the treaty. 

310-309

Roxane and Alexander, the wife and son of Alexander the Great were murdered by Cassander. 

308

Seleucus I gains the title of King. 

306

Antigonus and his son Demetrius proclaim kings. 

305

Ptolemy, Lysimachus and Cassander take the titles King.

304

Agathocles proclaims himself king.

301

Antigonus defeated and killed at the battle of Ipsus. Lysimachus rules Anatolia. 

300

Seleucid dynasty gains control in Syria. Antioch on the Orontes founded.

295

Seleucid occupies Cilicia. Lysimachus conquers Ionia. 

287

Lysimachus and Pyrrhus split Macedonia. 

281

Seleucus I defeated Lysimachus at the battle of Corupedium. Lysimachus dies at the battlefield.

280

Seleucus I was murdered by Ptolemy Ceravnos at Lysimacheia. Bithynian, Cappadocian and Armenian kingdoms declare independence from Seleucid kingdom. 

278

Gauls invade Anatolia and settle in Central Anatolia. 

277

Antigonus Gonatos defeats the Celts at Lysimacheia. 

275

Gauls defeated by Seleucid Emperor Antiochus I. 

263 - 241

Rise of Pergamum kingdom under Attalid dynasty. 

230

Rome and Pergamum becomes strong allies. Gauls crushed by Pergamum.

189

Antiochus defeated by Romans at Magnesia.

188

Treaty of Apameia puts an end to Seleucid rule in Anatolia.

133

Attalus III the last king of Pergamum dies and bequests his kingdom to Rome. 

130  

Roman province of Asia Minor established. Pergamum becomes capital. Aristonicus defeated.

120-63

Reign of Mithridates VI of Pontus

101

Cilicia (southern Anatolia) becomes Roman province

88

Mithridates the king of Pontus destroys the cities and massacres number of Roman citizens. 

84  

Lycia was incorporated by Romans into province of Asia

83

End of Seleucid kingdom. Mediterranean coast becomes center of Piracy.

81  

Pontus was annexed into Roman province 

80

Commagene kingdom in the remote east Anatolia founded, after the death of Antiochus, monumental tomb built on the top of Mt. Nemrut.

78

Pompeii the general campaigns against Pirates in Pamphylia, Cilicia and Isauria.

74

Nicomedes IV the king of Bithynia dies and leaves his kingdom to Rome.

67

Cilicia becomes a Roman province.

66

After defeated by Romans, Mithridates kills himself. Romans control much of Anatolia

53

Crassus was defeated by Parthians at Harran. 

41

Anthony and Cleopatra come together at Tarsus.

40  

Anthony and Cleopatra marry at Antioch

32

Rome declares war on Cleopatra's Egypt.

31

Cleopatra and Antony defeated by Octavian at the battle of Actium. 

30  

Octavius (Augustus) visits Antioch. Cleopatra and Antony commit suicide. End of Hellenistic period and beginning of Roman Imperial Period.

29

Ephesus replaces Pergamum as capital of the Roman Province of Asia.

Common Era

 

40 - 56

St. Paul's missionary journeys. First Christian community at Antioch.

72  

Roman empire annexes Commagene kingdom

117

Trajan dies at Selinus, Cilicia, Hadrian becomes Imperator

124

Hadrian's visits in Asia Minor.

129

Galen the famous physician at Pergamum

165

Plaque in Asia Minor

215

Caracalla at Antioch

229 - 260

Romans and Sassanids fight a series of wars over eastern Anatolia.

260

Emperor Valerian is defeated and captured by the Sassanids at Edessa. The Persians take the control of territories as far as Caesarea in Cappadocia.

301  

Armenia converted to Christianity

303 

Christians severely persecuted at Nicomedia.

312

Constantine becomes sole emperor of the Roman Empire after defeating his rival Maxentius at the battle of Milvian Bridge near Rome.

313

Christianity tolerated religion in Byzantine Empire. Byzantium renamed Constantinople.

324  

Constantinople becomes capital of Roman empire.

325

First of Ecumenical council meetings at Nicaea under Constantine the great.

329 - 379

St. Basil of Cappadocia founds monasteries in Anatolia

361

Julian the Apostate attempts to return the empire to the worship of pagan gods.

381

Second council meeting at Constantinople.

392

Christianity made state religion by Theodosius and the polytheist pagan religion was banned in the Roman Empire.

395

Roman Empire divided as Eastern and Western sections. Eastern Roman Empire based in Constantinople survived for another 1100 years, until it fell to Ottoman Empire in 1453.

  

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Travels around Asia Minor 1976-2002
Copyright by Thracian Ltd. 2009-2014
Last Update : December, 2011